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Inventory number

Cat.1781

  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Funerary papyrus of Djehutymes

Turin papyrus Cat. 1781 presents scenes from the Amduat, the Book of the Dead, the Book of the Night and the Book of Gates. The so-called etiquette states the deceased’s name and titles on the manuscript's right-hand side.

The treatise’s structure consists of two horizontal registers juxtaposing different episodes through conceptual and symbolic processes.

On the manuscript’s left-hand side, the scribe presents the following scene: The Twelve Goddesses with Snakes (Amduat, Twelfth Hour) in the top register and Book of Gates scene 17 (Fourth Division) in the bottom register.

On the manuscript’s right-hand side in the top register, the scribe presents the following scenes: The Solar Boat (Book of the Dead chapter 102/Book of Gates) and The Jackals or Westerners bA.w (Book of the Night, Twelfth Hour). And in the bottom register: Book of Gates scene 56 (Ninth Division) and 17 (Fourth Division). These episodes also refer to Chapter 24 in the Book of the Dead: Spell for bringing the power of speech back to N. in the god's realm ("N." stands for the "name" of the deceased).

On the manuscript’s far right-hand side, a seventeen-column text is used by the scribe to identify the deceased, Djehutymes, as a priest of Amun and Mut, and bookkeeper of the Theban’s clergy estate during the late 21st Dynasty or beginning of the 22nd Dynasty.

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Provenance

Thebes (?)

Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

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Image(s)

Image

  • Text 1

Hieroglyphs

  • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs

Translation

Legenda (col. 1)

Parole dette: «Tenebre del giorno, padrona dell’Occidente».


Etichetta (col. 1-17)

Parole dette da Ra, signore delle Due Terre, dio eccelso […] presso il cielo, signore della Duat.

Parole dette ? dagli sciacalli alla prua della barca solare.

Sacerdote di Amon-Ra, Re degli dèi, sacerdote di Mut, scriba della contabilità del grano del Possedimento di Amon, Djehutymes, giustificato nel giorno degli dèi eccelsi che sono nella necropoli.

Egli dice [?] «Ra Harakhti, dio eccelso, vivente {perfetto} nella Maat, grande disco fiammeggiante di splendore, dio unico, manifestatosi all’inizio e ogni dio si manifesta dietro di lui, che splende perfettamente a Occidente.»

{Gli dei che riposano} presso la Sede (della Verità, cfr: la necropoli di Deir el Medina) possano concedere ogni buona offerta che si trova nei campi di Iaru.



Editor

Enrico Pozzi (EP)

Contributor

Shenali Boange (SB)

Script

cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Book of the Dead, Book of Day and Night, Amduat, Book of Gates

Keywords

Twelfth Hour, spell 024, spell 102, spell 124, scene 56, scene 17, division 9, division 4

Place name

Iaru (iArw), Deir el-Medina (s.t mAa.t), Netherworld (dwA.t), Amun estate (pr-imn)

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Drawing

Yes

Drawing description

The manuscript’s visual representation describes the Sun-god Re's nocturnal journey through the Netherworld. The treatise's visual model does not resemble the prototype established that decorates the 18th Dynasty royal burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. The scribe arranges the scenes without following the treatise’s standard protocol and presents the episodes according to his discretion, using different excerpts from the Netherworld Books. The treatise's structure consists of two horizontal registers presenting Re, in the shape of a falcon-headed deity, travelling on the solar boat through the netherworld regions. On the manuscript’s left-hand side, the scribe presents apotropaic and adoration scenes. In the top register, seven snake-headed goddesses sitting on mounds punish Re’s nemesis Apophis and brighten the Netherworld’s darkness, while in the bottom register four fire-spitting snakes praise the image of the Sun-god's bA inside the Ax.t sign. On the manuscript’s right-hand side, the scribe illustrates what is described in the Book of the Dead in chapter 24. In the top part, four jackals tow the solar vessel through the waterly heaven vault pulling a snake-headed hawser (a thick rope for mooring or towing boats). In New Kingdom cosmographical texts, the motif of the “Westerners bA-souls”, the so-called bA.w imn.tyw, represented as jackals towing the solar barque, is well known, especially from the Book of the Day and the Book of the Night, and we also find comparisons in late 21st Dynasty mythological papyri. The jackals' function is to protect the Sun-god and repel his enemies during the last phases of his journey. The solar vessel transports eight deities: DHwty (Thot), xpri (Khepri), Ir (?), ra nTr-aA nb-p.t (Re, Great God, Lord of the sky), mHn (Mehen), plus two deities identified by the pH-sign over their heads; the last one, the helmsman, is a serpent. On the prow of the barque is a bird over a trellis (a helpful instrument for sailing), which is a symbol usually associated with the daytime navigation of the barque of Re (manD.t). In the bottom part, two falcon-headed deities and four fire-spitting cobras squeeze and annihilate Re’s enemies through a winepress above a lake of fire. Alongside the destruction of the hostile forces that interfere with establishing the natural order (Cfr. the Maat principle), a bA-bird under the legend dwA.t praises the composition, offering lotus flowers and loaves of bread.

Bibliographical reference

Hornung E., Das Amduat: die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes, Teil I–III (ÄA 7 und 13), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1963-1967 (OEB10071-12422).


Hornung E., The Ancient Egyptian Book of Gates, Zurich: Living Human Heritage Publications 2014 (OEB 214649).


Niwinski A., Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C. (OBO 86), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1989 (OEB 32792).


Piankoff A., Le Livre du Jour et de la Nuit (BdE 13), Le Caire: IFAO 1942, pp. 89-93 (OEB 147297).


Piankoff A. and Rambova N., Mythological Papyri (BollSer XL 3), New York: Pantheon Books, 1957, pp. 75-76, pl. 21 (OEB 5820).


Quirke S., Going out in Daylight. prt m hrw. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: translation, sources, meanings (GHP Egyptology 20), London: Golden House Publications 2013 (OEB197753).


Roulin G., Le Livre de la Nuit: une composition égyptienne de l'au-delà (OBO 147), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1996, pp. 75-78, 330-334, pl. 19 (OEB 40570).


Sadek, A-A F., Contribution à l’étude de l’Amdouat: Les variantes tardives du Livre de l’Amdouat dans les papyrus du Musée du Caire (OBO 65), Freiburg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1985 (OEB 29751).


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