CLOSE

Inventory number

Cat.1807

  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Book of the Dead of Pari

The fragment is the end of a longer papyrus manuscript which contains a funerary text called Book of the Dead, a compilation of several formulae aiming at the guidance, protection and resurrection of the deceased in the Afterlife. The Turin papyrus contains chapters 18 and 125 of the Book of the Dead, written from right to left in the cursive form of Hieroglyphic writing, accompanied by illustrations in red, white, yellow, blue and green.

Chapter 18 contains a series of invocations of Thoth to defend the deceased against his enemies before various groups of deities. The relevant groups of gods and goddesses are depicted above the text with the deceased kneeling in adoration in front of them.

Chapter 125, the so-called “Negative Confession” (declaration of the innocence of the deceased during his lifetime) in the hall of judgment in the Afterlife, is represented by an illustration of the weighing of the heart of the deceased in the presence of the god Osiris and the goddess Maat. The deceased must declare innocence of his sins while his heart is weighed against the feather as symbol of truth by the gods Horus and Anubis. The Ibis-headed god Thoth writes down the results and should the deceased fail, his heart would be eaten by the animal creature Ammit. In the present case, the deceased succeeded as it becomes clear from the text above the scene: Thoth declares that the heart of the deceased will be unified with his body for eternity.

The deceased named Pari, depicted in front of Maat, wears a beard, which is unusual for Egyptians but rather common for foreigners. The style of the beard, as well as the name of the deceased suggest that Pari is of Syrian origin.

Noteworthy is the state of conservation of the papyrus: some of the gaps in the upper and lower edges are covered with papyrus fragments, most likely of other manuscripts. This method of “restoration” appears to have been conducted in the 19th century, while the mounting on gauze was done in the middle of the 20th century.

Epoch

Graeco-Roman Period (332 BC-565 AD)

Dynasty

Ptolemaic Period (305-30 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Provenance

Thebes (?)

Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

Joining object(s) (log into TPOP)

Image(s)

Image

  • Text 1

Editor

Susanne Töpfer (ST)

Script

cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Funerary text, Book of the Dead

Keywords

spell 125, justification, spell 018, offering, protection, festival, enemy

Place name

Pe (=Buto, pi), Abydos (AbDw), Rosetau (r'-sTA.w), Busiris (Dd.w), Letopolis (xm), Dep (=Buto, dp), Heliopolis (iwnw), Naref (n-Ar=f)

Epoch

Graeco-Roman Period (332 BC-565 AD)

Dynasty

Ptolemaic Period (305-30 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Drawing

Yes

Drawing description

Chapter 18 contains a series of invocations of Thoth to defend the deceased against his enemies before various groups of deities. The relevant groups of gods and goddesses are depicted above the text with the deceased kneeling in adoration in front of them. Chapter 125, the so-called “Negative Confession” (declaration of the innocence of the deceased during his lifetime) in the hall of judgment in the Afterlife, is represented by an illustration of the weighing of the heart of the deceased in the presence of the god Osiris and the goddess Maat. The deceased must declare innocence of his sins while his heart is weighed against the feather as symbol of truth by the gods Horus and Anubis. The Ibis-headed god Thoth writes down the results and should the deceased fail, his heart would be eaten by the animal creature Ammit. In the present case, the deceased succeeded as becomes clear from the text above the scene: Thoth declares that the heart of the deceased will be unified with his body for eternity. The deceased named Pari, depicted in front of Maat, wears a beard, which is unusual for Egyptians but rather common for foreigners. The style of the beard, as well as the name of the deceased suggest that Pari is of Syrian origin.

Museo Egizio