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Inventory number

Cat.1779

  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Amduat papyrus of Djedkhonsuiuefankh

Turin papyrus Cat. 1779 presents scenes from the Book of the Dead chapters 85, 130, 148 and 149 and the Amduat's Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Hours. On the manuscript's right-hand side, the so-called etiquette shows an offering scene between Osiris and the papyrus’ owner.

The papyrus’s structure consists of two horizontal registers juxtaposing different episodes through conceptual and symbolic processes.

From left to right, the top register presents the following scenes: Book of the Dead chapters 148, 130 and 85, The Eyes of the Sun (Amduat, Tenth Hour) and The Goddesses on Snakes (Amduat, Eleventh Hour).

From left to right, the bottom register presents the following scenes: Book of the Dead chapter 149, The Drowned (Amduat, Tenth Hour), The Twelve Goddesses with Snakes (Amduat, Twelfth Hour), The Armed Ones (Amduat, Tenth Hour) or The Row of Rowers (Amduat, Twelfth Hour) and The Mummy of Osiris (Amduat, Twelfth Hour).

On the manuscript's right-hand side, the scribe inserts Khepri and Shu’s scene (Amduat, Twelfth Hour) amongst the two registers.

On the manuscript's far right-hand side, the etiquette shows the deceased, Djedkhonsuiuefankh, offering funerary supplies and making a libation in front of Osiris.

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Provenance

Thebes (?)

Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

Joining object(s) (log into TPOP)

Image(s)

Image

  • Text 1

Hieroglyphs

  • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs

Editor

Enrico Pozzi (EP)

Contributor

Shenali Boange (SB)

Script

cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Amduat, Book of the Dead

Keywords

spell 148, Twelfth Hour, Tenth Hour, spell 130, spell 149, Eleventh Hour, spell 085

Place name

Netherworld (dwA.t)

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Drawing

Yes

Drawing description

The manuscript’s visual representation describes the Sun-god Re's nocturnal journey through the Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Hours of the night. The treatise’s visual model does not resemble the prototype established that decorates the 18th Dynasty royal burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. The scribe arranges the scenes without following the treatise’s standard protocol and presents the episodes according to his discretion. Therefore, several deities are missing from these episodes (deities 698, 699, 700, 737-745 in the Tenth Hour, deities 825-833 in the Twelfth Hour). The treatise's structure consists of two horizontal registers presenting excerpts of the deities from the last three netherworld regions. In the top register from left to right, the scribe presents the cow goddess Hathor with a crown of plumes, a wedjat-eye and a paddle, all as the deceased’s providers of offerings and rebirth. The following scene represents a vessel transporting the sun's hypostasis: the scribe uses this vignette intending to secure a place for the deceased in the solar barque next to Re. The third episode presents the theme of transformation in which the deceased overcomes the stillness of death by taking the forms of the two bA-birds depicted here. In New Kingdom inscriptions, the “living bA-soul” is one of the forms most often wished for by the deceased. Thus, the deceased asserts his identity as the bA-soul of Re, the creator Sun-god, and purifies himself in this eternal manifestation to be able to stand in the presence of Osiris. The following scene presents the healing of the Sun-god’s eyes: the left eye, mann.wy (The double-coiled), emerges from two snakes between two deities, one bearing the red crown and the other bearing the white crown (symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt), whilst the right eye, sdfy.t (The wrapped (staff?)), usually depicted as coming out from the top of the hieroglyphic sign for “god”, is not represented. This register’s last scene presents one of the Netherworld’s apotropaic features and depicts five goddesses riding snakes: their task is to bring Re’s bidding in the sky to fruition by guarding and protecting the Sun-god. In the bottom register, from left to right alongside the papyrus’ first etiquette, the scribe presents a snake coming out of a cave. Below this vignette, the scribe presents the Netherworld’s merciful feature in which Horus’ hypostasis (here absent) uses magic spells to assist three drowned corpses. This scene shows how the divine intervention of Horus can intercede for those who do not have the required funeral ritual arrangements as they have died an unfortunate or violent death or their bodies are missing or have drowned (like Osiris). The following scenes represent three goddesses with (fire-spitting) snakes on their shoulders, punishing Re’s nemesis Apophis and brightening the Netherworld’s darkness. This is followed by four rowers of the solar barque with solar disks instead of heads. This register’s last scene shows sSm-iwf (Image of the flesh), the corpse of Osiris who is restricted into the Netherworld's boundaries; above his mummy is the papyrus’ second etiquette. On the manuscript's right-hand side, between the two registers, the scribe presents a beetle (Khepri), the Sun-god in his renewed form. Here he exits the Netherworld by travelling through the outstretched arms of the air-god Shu to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. On the manuscript's far right-hand side, the etiquette shows the deceased, Djedkhonsuiuefankh, offering funerary supplies and making a libation in front of Osiris.

Bibliographical reference

Hornung E., Das Amduat: die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes, Teil I–III (ÄA 7 und 13), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1963-1967 (OEB10071-12422).


Niwinski A., Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C. (OBO 86), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1989 (OEB 32792).


Quirke S., Going out in Daylight. prt m hrw. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: translation, sources, meanings (GHP Egyptology 20), London: Golden House Publications 2013 (OEB197753).


Sadek, A-A F., Contribution à l’étude de l’Amdouat: Les variantes tardives du Livre de l’Amdouat dans les papyrus du Musée du Caire (OBO 65), Freiburg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1985 (OEB 29751).

Museo Egizio