Inventory number


  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Amduat papyrus of Pyner

Turin papyrus Cat. 1785 presents scenes from the Amduat's Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Hours. The so-called etiquette reports an offering formula between Re Horakhty, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris and the papyrus’ owner.

This composition perfectly represents the 21st Dynasty funerary beliefs and the deceased’s desire to be reborn in the Solar-Osirian unity.

The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers describing the Netherworld's Twelfth Hour; on the manuscripts’ left-hand side, the scribe also includes the Tenth and Eleventh Hour’s two main episodes. These episodes are the first scenes in the top and bottom registers, respectively The Drowned (Tenth Hour) and The Punishment of the Damned (Eleventh Hour). Their function is to recollect the last phases of the Sun-god Re’s journey by applying the pars pro toto’s rule (a part of something taken as a representative of the whole). 

The Twelfth Hour describes the end of the Sun-god’s nocturnal journey through the Netherworld. Here, the Sun’s rejuvenation process takes place inside the (here missing) life-regenerating serpent anx-nTr.w (Life of the gods), as we see on the manuscript’s far right-hand side a beetle, Khepri, representing the Sun-god’s rebirthed form. Hence, Re in his renewed form exits the Netherworld travelling through the air-god Shu’s outstretched arms to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. In the top and bottom registers, many deities witness the end of the Sun-god’s journey, praising the Great God. This hour of the night presents the following scenes: The Twelve Worshipers, The Solar Boat, The Twelve Gods of Tow, The Thirteen Goddesses of Tow, Khepri and Shu, The Ten Worshipers and The Mummy of Osiris.

On the manuscript’s right-hand side, the etiquette reports an offering formula with the deceased’s name, Pyner. It is interesting to notice how Pyner's name is in a palimpsest covering the manuscript's previous owner's identity. In fact, in three different areas the scribe had erased the name of the previous owner and replaced it with that of Pyner's. 


Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)


Dynasty 21 (1076-944 BC)


Siamun/Psusennes II



Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

Joining object(s) (log into TPOP)



  • Text 1


  • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs


Enrico Pozzi (EP)


Shenali Boange (SB)


cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Amduat, Formula Htp-di-nsw.t


Eleventh Hour, Tenth Hour, Twelfth Hour

Place name

STy.t-Chapel (STy.t)


Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)


Dynasty 21 (1076-944 BC)


Siamun/Psusennes II



Drawing description

The manuscript’s visual representation describes the Sun-god Re’s nocturnal journey through the last three hours of the night. The treatise’s visual model does not resemble the prototype established that decorates the 18th Dynasty royal burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. The scribe arranges the scenes without following the treatise’s standard protocol and presents the episodes according to his discretion. He replaces the cosmographical text with horror-vacui (fear of empty spaces: the filling of the entire surface of a space with details) like offering formulas and invocations to Re-Horakhty and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Therefore, several deities are missing from these scenes (deities 745, 747-748 in the Tenth Hour, deities 804-805 and 810-816 in the Eleventh Hour and deities 843-845, 846, 851-853, 861-869, 874-882, 906 and 907 in the Twelfth Hour). The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers presenting Re, in his nocturnal shape as a ram-headed deity, travelling on the solar boat through the last three netherworld regions. In the top register from left to the right, the first scene presents the Netherworld’s merciful feature in which (the here missing) Horus’ hypostasis uses magic spells to assist two drowned corpses. This scene shows how the divine intervention of Horus can intercede for those who do not have the required funeral ritual arrangements as they have died an unfortunate or violent death or their bodies are missing or have drowned (like Osiris). In the following scene, nine worshipers, characterised by the typical adoration gesture with raised hands, praise the Great God. In the middle register, from left to the right, in order to complete Re’s rejuvenation process, four gods and four goddesses tow the solar barque to the eastern horizon. On the register’s right-hand side, a beetle (Khepri), the Sun-god in his renewed form, exits the Netherworld by travelling through the outstretched arms of the air-god Shu to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. In the bottom register, from left to the right, the first scene presents one of the Netherworld’s apotropaic features where (the here missing) Horus’ hypostasis orders the destruction and annihilation of the hostile forces that interfere with establishing the natural order (Cfr. the Maat principle). Two knife-wielding lion-headed goddesses, with fire-spitting snakes on their shoulders, slaughter Re’s enemies over their fire-pits. The following scene presents eight worshippers adoring and praising sSm-iwf (Image of the flesh), the corpse of Osiris, who is restricted into the Netherworld’s boundaries.

Bibliographical reference

Hornung E., Das Amduat: die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes, Teil I–III (ÄA 7 und 13), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1963-1967 (OEB10071-12422).

Niwinski A., Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C. (OBO 86), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1989 (OEB 32792).

Sadek, A-A F., Contribution à l’étude de l’Amdouat: Les variantes tardives du Livre de l’Amdouat dans les papyrus du Musée du Caire (OBO 65), Freiburg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1985 (OEB 29751).

Museo Egizio