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Inventory number

Cat.1788

  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Anonymous Amduat papyrus

Turin papyrus Cat. 1788 presents scenes from the Amduat's Eleventh and Twelfth Hours

The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers juxtaposing different episodes through conceptual and symbolic processes.

The top and middle registers feature a predominantly apotropaic characteristic presenting the Punishment of the Damned (Eleventh Hour).

The middle register also represents The Solar Boat (Twelfth Hour) transporting a beetle, Khepri, inside the solar disk of the Ax.t sign. The Sun-god Re’s renewed form is placed between two wedjat-eyes, a well-known iconography probably referring to the Book of the Dead chapter 102 or 136.

The bottom register presents the other two scenes from the Twelfth Hour: The Twelve Gods of Tow and The Snake of Rejuvenation.

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Provenance

Thebes

Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

Joining object(s) (log into TPOP)

Image(s)

Image

  • Text 1

Editor

Enrico Pozzi (EP)

Contributor

Shenali Boange (SB)

Script

cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Book of the Dead, Amduat

Keywords

spell 102, spell 136, Eleventh Hour, Twelfth Hour

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21/Dynasty 22 (986-840 BC)

Pharaoh

---

Drawing

Yes

Drawing description

The manuscript’s visual representation describes a specific segment of the Sun-god Re’s nocturnal journey through the Eleventh and Twelfth Hours of the night. The treatise’s visual model does not resemble the prototype established that decorates the 18th Dynasty royal burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. The scribe arranges the scenes without following the treatise’s standard protocol and presents the episodes according to his discretion. Therefore, several deities are missing from these episodes (deities 804-805, 808, 810, 816 in the Eleventh Hour and deities 846-855 and 860-869 in the Twelfth Hour). The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers presenting Re, in his newborn form as a beetle, travelling on the solar boat through the last netherworld regions. The top and middle register present one of the Netherworld’s apotropaic features where Horus’ hypostasis (here missing) orders the destruction and annihilation of the hostile forces that interfere with establishing the natural order (Cfr. the Maat principle): in fact, we see seven fire-spitting and knife-wielding goddesses slaughtering Re’s enemies over their fire-pits. In the middle register, the scribe presents the theme of travel. Here depicting the solar barque transporting a beetle, Khepri, the Sun-god Re’s renewed form, inside the solar disk of the Ax.t sign between two wedjat-eyes. In the bottom register, in order to complete Re’s rejuvenation process, three deities tow the solar barque through the entire body of the serpent anx-nTr.w (Life of the gods). This scene is reinforced through the tit and Dd signs; symbols of the deities’ endurance and vital strength.

Bibliographical reference

Hornung E., Das Amduat: die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes, Teil I–III (ÄA 7 und 13), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1963-1967 (OEB10071-12422).


Hornung E., Texte Zum Amduat, Teil I-III: Kurzfassung und Langfassung, 1. bis 12. Stunde, Autographiert von Lotty Spycher und Barbara Lüscher (AH 13–15), Genève: Éditions de Belles-Lettres 1987–1994 (OEB 28504, 35567, 36111).


Niwinski A., Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C. (OBO 86), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1989 (OEB 32792).


Quirke S., Going out in Daylight. prt m hrw. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: translation, sources, meanings (GHP Egyptology 20), London: Golden House Publications 2013 (OEB197753).


Sadek, A-A F., Contribution à l’étude de l’Amdouat: Les variantes tardives du Livre de l’Amdouat dans les papyrus du Musée du Caire (OBO 65), Freiburg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1985 (OEB 29751).


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