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Inventory number

Provv.6260

  • Document
  • Writing Recto

General description

Amduat papyrus of Renenunet (?)

Turin papyrus Provv. 6260 presents scenes from the Amduat; Eleventh and Twelfth Hours. On the manuscript’s right-hand side the so-called etiquette displays an offering scene and an offering formula between Re-Horakhty, Ptah-Sokar and the papyrus’ owner.

The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers. From left to right it describes the Netherworld's reality through a multimodal composition of visual and linguistic signs.

On the manuscript’s left-hand side, the Eleventh Hour displays a predominantly apotropaic characteristic, particularly in the bottom register, and presents the following scenes: Atum and the Winged Serpent, Isis and Nephthys depicted as Urei, The Goddesses on Snakes, The Two-Headed Deity and The Punishment of the Damned.

In the central part of the manuscript, the Twelfth Hour describes the end of the Sun-god Re’s nocturnal journey through the Netherworld. Here, the Sun’s rejuvenation process takes place inside the life-regenerating serpent anx-nTr.w (Life of the gods). On the far right-hand side of the manuscript we see a beetle, Khepri, representing the Sun-god’s rebirthed form. Hence, Re, in his renewed appearance, exits the Netherworld travelling through the air-god Shu’s outstretched arms to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. In the top and bottom registers, many deities witness the end of the Sun-god’s journey, praising the Great God and protecting him from the danger of his nemesis, the serpent Apophis. This hour of the night presents the following scenes: The Twelve Goddesses with Snakes, The Twelve Worshipers, The Row of Rowers, The Solar Boat, The Thirteen Goddesses of Tow, The Snake of Rejuvenation, The Twelve Gods of Tow, Khepri and Shu, The Primordial Deities, The Ten Worshipers and The Mummy of Osiris.

On the manuscript’s right-hand side, the etiquette displays a four-column offering formula between Re-Horakhty, Ptah-Sokar and the papyrus’ owner, Renenunet (?). The offering scene isn't well preserved but shows the deceased offering funerary supplies and making a libation in front of Re-Horakhty.

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21 (1076-944 BC)

Pharaoh

Siamun/Psusennes II

Provenance

Thebes (?)

Acquisition: Drovetti, Bernardino

Acquisition Date: 1824

Joining object(s) (log into TPOP)

Image(s)

Image

  • Text 1

Hieroglyphs

  • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs
    • Hieroglyphs

Editor

Enrico Pozzi (EP)

Contributor

Shenali Boange (SB)

Script

cursive hieroglyphs

Text type

Formula Htp-di-nsw.t, Amduat

Keywords

Twelfth Hour, Eleventh Hour

Place name

Sacred land (tA-Dsr), Netherworld (dwA.t), STy.t-Chapel (STy.t)

Epoch

Third Intermediate Period (1076-664 BC)

Dynasty

Dynasty 21 (1076-944 BC)

Pharaoh

Siamun/Psusennes II

Drawing

Yes

Drawing description

The manuscript’s visual representation describes the Sun-god Re’s nocturnal journey through the Eleventh and Twelfth Hours of the night. The treatise’s visual model does not perfectly resemble the prototype established that decorates the 18th Dynasty royal burial chambers in the Valley of the Kings. Therefore, some deities are missing (deities 772-774, 804, 810-813, 815-816 in the Eleventh Hour and deities 822-827, 835-843, 846-853, 856-864, 866, 870-877, 894-897 and 903-907 in the Twelfth Hour). The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers representing the solar barque travelling through the last two netherworld regions. On the manuscript’s left-hand side, corresponding to the Eleventh Hour, the top register’s first scenes show Atum emerging from a winged serpent, followed by two crowned serpents resembling Isis and Nephthys. The third episode, which is not well preserved, presents one goddess riding a snake and bringing Re’s bidding in the sky to fruition. The bottom register presents one of the Netherworld’s apotropaic features. Instead of Horus’ hypostasis, there is the two-headed deity apr.w-Hr-nb-D.t (He with equipped face, Lord of time) who orders the destruction and annihilation of the hostile forces that interfere with establishing the natural order (Cfr. the Maat principle). Here, the serpent st-HH.w (He who burns millions) and the double lion-headed fire-spitting goddess slaughter Re’s enemies over their fire-pits. In the manuscript’s centre, corresponding to the Twelfth Hour, the top register presents six goddesses with fire-spitting snakes on their shoulders, punishing Re’s nemesis Apophis and brightening the Netherworld’s darkness, while three worshippers, characterised by the typical adoration gesture with raised hands, praise the Great God. In the middle register, to complete Re’s rejuvenation process, five goddesses and four gods tow the solar barque through the entire body of the life-regenerating serpent anx-nTr.w (Life of the gods). On the register’s left-hand side, we see four rowers at the stern of the solar barque, while on the register’s far right-hand side we see the accomplishment of the rejuvenation process: a beetle, the Sun-god’s renewed form, going out of the Netherworld by travelling through the outstretched arms of the air-god Shu to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. The bottom register presents two couples of primaeval deities with wAs sceptres alongside the serpent nsr-m-ir.t=f (He who burns with his eye). In the final scenes, five worshippers adore and praise sSm-iwf (Image of the Flesh), the corpse of Osiris who is restricted into the boundaries of the Netherworld. On the manuscript's right-hand side, the offering scene is fairly damaged but shows the deceased offering funerary supplies and making a libation in front of Re-Horakhty.

Bibliographical reference

Hornung E., Das Amduat: die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes, Teil I–III (ÄA 7 und 13), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1963-1967 (OEB10071-12422).


Naguib S.-A., Le clergé féminin d’Amon thébain à la 21e Dynastie (OLA 38), Leuven: Peeters 1990 (OEB 33024).


Niwinski A., Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C. (OBO 86), Fribourg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1989 (OEB 32792).


Onstine S., The Role of the Chantress (Smay.t) in Ancient Egypt (BAR International Series 1401), Oxford: Archeopress 2005 (OEB 154482).


Sadek, A-A F., Contribution à l’étude de l’Amdouat: Les variantes tardives du Livre de l’Amdouat dans les papyrus du Musée du Caire (OBO 65), Freiburg / Göttingen: Universitätsverlag / Vandenhoeck Ruprecht 1985 (OEB 29751).

Museo Egizio